The nature of management

Chapter organizer and goals


As many as ninety percent of todays college students will spend their careers as employees being by bosses.many of these employees will eventually themselves become managers.although management is a young discipline,an organized body of knowledge has grown up around it.poor management is often blamed when an organization fails,just as good management is credited when an organization is successful.

Thus management is an important discipline worthy of serious study.the field of management is a mixture  of  art and faces increasingly complex problems but encompasses principles applicable to all types of organizations.many definitions of management have been offered ,but a key element is that managing entails eccomplishing tasks through the work of others.

Managers assume a variety of roles in their work,including interpersonal,informational,and decisional.these

Roles are interdependent and vary in importance with both the managers functional area and his or her level

Within the addition to playing roles,managers also perform four major functions.these are planning,organizing,directing,and controlling.aithough we study them separately,these roles are interrelated

And are carried out simultaneously  by the manager.

From supervisor to chief executive officer,the levels of management are divided into three categories:

First-line,middle,and managers strive to move up through these levels,education and ability seem to be key factors in the success of those who are effective.also important is the ability to make the transition

From a focus on technical akills to an emphasis on human and conceptual skills.knowledge gleaned from

Education,skills derived from experience and training,and organizational and environmental factors all

Interact to determine the success or failure of the manager.after careful study of this chapter,you should

Be able to:

1-explain the importance of management and its relationship to productivity in society.

2-define the term manager and cite examples of managers in various types of organizations.

3-explain the distinction between the scientific part of management and its artistic component.

4.describe the various roles that organizational managers play.

5-give an overview of the functions of management .

6-identify the various levels of management and give examples of each level in different types of organizations.

7-describe the three basic skills required of a manager.

8-identify the variables in the management success model.

Study outline


A.why study management?management is often blamed when oganizations fail and credited when they succeed. ….art or science?management is both art and science.

C.problems facing managers:the process of managing has become more complex in recent decades.

D.are management principles universal?the principles of management can be applied to any type of of


E.a definition and some problems with definitions:managing includes a range of behaviors across several


F.a philosophy of management:a philosophy of management is shaped by values,experiences,and beliefs.

2.various roles of a manager

A.interpersonal roles:the formal authority of the manager creates a set of roles which involve interaction with other people:

A-1.figurehead:virtually all managers play a ceremonial role in some capacity.

A-2.leader:this role includes hiring,training,evaluating,motivating,rewarding,and promoting. interact with people outside the immediate chain of command.

B.informational roles:managers gather information through interpersonal contacts:

B-1.monitor:managersgather information from sources internal and external to the organization

B-2.disseminator:the manager distributes information to subordinates daily.

B-3.spokesperson:each manager,at some time speaks officially for the organization.

C.decisional roles:managers make decisions in order to make things happen:

C-1.entrepreneur:managers use available information to identify opportunities for the organization.

C-2.disturbance handler:all managers must react to change and deal with deviations from  plans.

C-3.resource allocator:organizational resources are in limited supply and must be allocated.

C-4.negotiator:managing includes negotiating with others inside and outside of the organization.

D.common and special functions in organizations:management functions apply universally to all functional areas of the organization.

3.functions of management

A.the planning function:planning is deciding what to and when to do it

B.the organizing function:coordinating the efforts of two or more people is called organizing

C.the directing function:directing is guiding and leading people

D.the controlling function:the manager as controller compares performance with a standard or goal

4.levels of management

A.first-line managers:foreman,supervisors,section chiefs,and lead persons supervise daily activities of workers

B.middle managers:these managers translate strategies and policies into specific programs. managers:organizational policies and strategies are set by the CEO,the president,and the vice-presidents.

5.the road to the top one combination of background and experiences can guarantee success as a manager

B.what is an effective manager?to be effective a manager must identify and achieve results in a few critical areas.

C.fifferences in managerial skills:why do some managers succed and others fail?

C-1.technical skills:entry-level jobs draw heavily on these skills

C-2.human skills:skills in human relations make career advancement easier

C-3.conceptual skills:as a manager advances to higher levels,the ability to see the organization as a whole becomes increasingly important people learn to manage:there are many sources of management knowledge:

D-1.managing through formal education:management principles and theories can be taught.

D-2.managing through experience:experience is widely repected but can be a drawback if it limits flexibility.

E.the management success model (MSM):a managers skills and personality interact with the organization and its environment to determine the managers success or failure.

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